United States District Court Judge Barry Ted Moskowitz (Southern District of California) certified a class of newspaper home delivery carriers classified as independent contractors by Lee Publications, Inc. but alleging their status as employees of Lee Publications. Dalton, et al. v. Lee Publications, Inc., ___ F.R.D. ___, 2010 WL 2985130 (July 27, 2010). As is usually the case, commonality was the primary area of dispute. The Court succinctly stated California's approach to identifying the employer-employee relationship:
Under California law, the most important aspect of the employee-employer relationship is the “right to control the manner and means of accomplishing the result desired.” Cristler v. Express Messenger Sys., Inc., 171 Cal.App.4th 72, 77, 89 Cal.Rptr.3d 34 (2009) (citing Empire Star Mines Co. v. Cal. Employment Comm'n, 28 Cal.2d 33, 43-44, 168 P.2d 686 (1946), overruled on other grounds by People v. Sims, 32 Cal.3d 468, 479 n. 8, 186 Cal.Rptr. 77, 651 P.2d 321 (1982)).
Although control is the primary factor, California courts also consider several secondary factors. “Strong evidence in support of an employment relationship is the right to discharge at will, without cause.” Empire Star Mines, 28 Cal.2d at 43, 168 P.2d 686. Other secondary factors include (1) whether the one performing services is engaged in a distinct occupation; (2) the kind of occupation and whether, in the locality, the work is usually done under the direction of the principal or by a specialist without supervision; (3) the skill required; (4) whether the principal or the worker supplies the tools and the place of work; (5) the length of time for which the services are to be performed; (6) the method of payment, by time or by job; (7) whether the work is a part of the regular business of the principal; (8) whether the parties believe they are creating an employer-employee relationship; (9) the hiree's degree of investment in his business and whether the hiree holds himself or herself out to be in business with an independent business license; (10) whether the hiree has employees; (11) the hiree's opportunity for profit or loss depending on his or her managerial skill; and (12) whether the service rendered is an integral part of the alleged employer's business. JKH Enterprises, Inc. v. Dep't of Indus. Relations, 142 Cal.App.4th 1046, 1064 n. 14, 48 Cal.Rptr.3d 563 (2006) (citing S.G. Borello & Sons, Inc. v. Dep't of Indus. Relations, 48 Cal.3d 341, 350-55, 256 Cal.Rptr. 543, 769 P.2d 399 (1989)).
Slip op., at 5.